Attribution: The sword of the west European origin is attributed to the 11th century. It is related to a so-called type of European Carolingian swords, used by the Normans and widely spread across the whole Europe in the 9th-11th centuries. A large number of such swords were found during archaeological excavations on the territory of Russia.
Attribution: In major cases, such calendar swords originate from Germany. Their presence is most often connected to the ceremony of the court hunting: the calendar allowed correlating the season and the type of the hunt, which matched that time of the year.
Attribution: The sword allegedly dates back to the late 16th–early 17th cc. due to typical decoration of crossguard end in a shape of volutes (type of Munich two-hand sword) together with special construction of the blade that has denticles at the ricasso – a trap for rivals' blades – of a smaller length and different form than the two-hand swords of the second half of the 16th c.
Attribution: In 1659, a group of swords (12pcs) appeared in the Armoury Chamber; this is one of them. They were presented to Tsar Alexey Mikhailovich by the Holland merchant Ivan Fansveden and received by the Armoury Prikaz. Obviously, they were presented for a good reason: the Hollander certainly knew the interest of the Russian tsar in this type of ceremonial weapon.
Executioner's Sword and Scabbard
Attribution: For the first time, this sword was mentioned as a cutlass in the weapon inventory book. Up to 1737, it was kept by armourer I.H. Illing together with other weapons, received by him from Camera-Zahlmeister A. Kaisarov. Allegedly, earlier it belonged to Prince V.L. Dolgorukiy and then was confiscated among other weapons that included several 'ancient cutlasses' with silver and iron mount.
Attribution: For the first time, this sword was mentioned in the Census book of the armoury treasury in 1686/1687s among four other swords.
Two-hand Sword and Scabbard
Attribution: In the museum inventory, the sword is attributed to Solingen, Germany, in 1692. There is a mark on the heel of a blade 'a pelican feeding the nestlings with his flesh'. A famous swordsmith from Solingen Clemens Dinger who worked in the 1620-1640s used this mark. A discrepancy in mark and date carved on the blade can be explained by several facts: first of all, the blade could be produced by Clemens Dinger but mounted with a hilt and decorated with the engraving only in 1692; secondly, the mark might have been used by heirs or relatives of the master, for example, Heinrich Dinger, famous from the middle of the 17th c.
Hand-and-a-half Sword and Scabbard
Attribution The sword is attributed according to the inscription on the hilt that indicates the master, place and year of the production. The hilt consists of a guard and a wooden grip that has notches on all of the sides. The pommel of the grip is made of steel and decorated with the images of a winged dragon and floral ornament on the verges. The forged double-edged blade is also made of steel.
Blade of the Two-hand Sword
Attribution: In the museum inventory, it is attributed as a blade of the sword of justice, made in Germany, in the 17th c. However, according to the type of the blade and the tang, it belongs to the blades of two-hand swords and does not possess the features characteristic of the sword of justice (lenticular section of martial point or the whole blade, rounded edge, parallel blades, length of the blade, etc.)
Attribution: The museum inventory attributes this sword blade to the 17th century made by master Andrea Ferara in Genoa. This attribution is partly wrong since the famous master of swords lived and worked in Venice; he was born circa 1540 and died on 21 April 1612. He was awarded the title of a master in 1566. Thus, this sword was created in between the second half of the 16th century and the first decade of the 17th century.